内容发布更新时间 : 2023/12/11 13:00:48星期一 下面是文章的全部内容请认真阅读。
例： The regulations lay down a rigid procedure for checking safety equipment．法令规定了一套严格的安检程序。
8. Look at the language barrier between the Saxon churls and their Norman conquerors. The conversation had swung from Australian convicts of the 19th century to the English peasants of the 12th century. Who was right, who was wrong, did not matter. The conversation was on wings.
8. 想想撒克逊农民 (churl) 与征服他们的诺曼统治者之间的语言隔阂barrier吧。于是闲聊的主题又从19世纪的澳大利亚囚犯 (convict) 转移到【swung（使）摇摆】了12世纪的应该农民 (peasant) 身上。谁对谁错，并没有关系。闲聊依旧热火朝天地进行着。 barrier: n. 屏障；妨碍 roadblock
churl (n.) : a farm laborer；peasant农民；庄稼人，乡下人 Conqueror: n. 征服者，占领者 Swung: v. (使)摇摆
convict (n.) : a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court罪犯 Peasant: n.农夫
on wings : in flight；continually moving about像飞一样地，飘飘然 例： The birds are on wings in the sky．鸟儿在空中展翅高飞。 She went home on wings.她高高兴兴地回家。
9. Someone took one of the best – known of examples, which is still always worth the reconsidering. When we talk of meat on our tables we use French words; when we speak of the animals from which the meat comes we use Anglo – Saxon words. It is a pig in its sty; it is pork (porc) on the table. They are cattle in the fields, but we sit down to beef (boeuf). Chickens become poultry (poulet), and a calf becomes veal (veau ). Even if our menus were not written in French out of snobbery, the English we used in them would still be Norman English. What all this tells us is of a deep class rift in the culture of English after the Norman Conquest.
rift (n.) : an open break in a previously friendly relationship分裂；失和 Sty: sties [C]a place where pigs are kept=pigsty
Poultry :n. hens,ducks,geese,turkeys,etc. Kept for eating or for their eggs;domestic fowls 家禽 Veal: flesh of a calf used as meat（使用的）小牛肉
6. They are cattle in the fields, but we sit down to beef (boeuf). (para9)
These animals are called cattle when they are alive and feeding in the fields; but when we sit down at the table to eat．We call their meat beef．
10. The Saxon peasants who tilled the land and reared the animals could not afford the meat, which went to Norman tables. The peasants were allowed to eat the rabbits that scampered over their field and, since that meat was cheap, the Norman lords of course turned up their noses at it. So rabbit is still rabbit on our tables, and not changed into some rendering of lapin.
10. 撒克逊农民peasant种地养殖rear牲畜，自己出产的肉自己却吃不上，全部送到了诺曼人的餐桌上。农民们只能吃在地里乱窜scamper的兔子。因为兔子的肉便宜，诺曼贵族自然不屑turn up one’s noses at去吃它。因此，活兔子和兔子肉共用rabbit这个词表示，而没有换成由法语lapin转化（rendering翻译）而来的某个词。
scamper (v.) : run or go hurriedly or quickly (儿童及某些小动物)奔跑，蹦蹦跳跳 例： The rabbit scampered away in fright.兔子惊慌地抛了 rendering (n.) : a translation翻译
turn up one’s nose at : to sneer at，scorn嘲笑，轻蔑
例： The children turned up their noses at my home cooking．孩子们嘲笑我的厨艺。
11. As we listen today to the arguments about bilingual education, we ought to think ourselves back into the shoes of the Saxon peasant. The new ruling class had built a cultural barrier against him by building their French against his own language. There must have been a great deal of cultural humiliation felt by the English when they revolted under Saxon leaders like Hereward the Wake. “The king?s English”-if the term had existed then-had become French. And here in America now, 900 years later, we are still the heirs to it.
11. 如今，当我们听着有关双语bilingual教育问题的争论时，我们应该设身处地into the shoes of替当时的撒克逊农民想一想，新的统治阶级ruling用法语来对抗撒克逊农民自己的语言，从而在农民周围筑起一道文化壁垒。当英国人在像觉醒者赫里沃德这样的撒克逊领袖领导下起来造反时，他们一定深深地感受到了文化上的屈辱humiliation。“标准英语”-如果那时候有这个名词的话-已经变成法语了。而九百年后我们在美国这个地方仍然继承了这种影响。
bilingual (adj.) : of，in or using two languages(用)两种语言的
in the shoes of : in another’s position站在别人的立场上，设身处地
例： I’m glad I’m not in his shoes with all those debts to pay off．我庆幸不用像他那样去偿还所有的债务。 Heir :n. (to sth) 继承人
7. The new ruling class had built a cultural barrier against him by building their French against his own language. (para11) 新的统治阶
The new ruling class by using French instead of English made it difficult for the
English to accept or absorb合并 the culture of the rulers．
12. So the next morning, the conversation over, one looked it up. The phrase came into use some time in the 16th century. “Queen?s English” is found in Nashe?s “Strange News of the Intercepting of Certain Letters” in 1593, and in 1602, Dekker wrote of someone, “thou clipst the King?s English.” Is the phrase in Shakespeare? That would be the confirmation that it was in general use. He uses it once, when Mistress Quickly in “The Merry Wives of Windsor” says of her master coming home in a rage, “…here will be an old abusing of God?s patience and the King?s English,” and it rings true.
12. 那晚闲聊过后的第二天一大早便有人去查阅了资料。这个名词在16世纪已有人使用过了。纳什作于1593年的《截获intercept信函奇闻》中就有过“标准英语”（Queen?s English）的提法。1602年德克写到某人时有句话说：“你thou把‘标准英语’（King?s English）简化了”。莎士比亚作品中是否也出现过这一提法呢？如出现过，那就证明这个词在当时既已通用。他用过一次，在《温莎的风流娘们》中，女仆Quickly在讲到她家老爷回来后将会有的盛怒情形时说，“??少不了一通臭骂，骂得昏天暗地，“标准英语”不知要给他糟蹋成个什么样子啦。”后来的事实果然被她说中了。
intercept (v.) : seize or stop on the way，before arrival at the intended place拦截；截断；截击。 例： Reporters intercepted him as he tried to leave by the rear entrance.他想从后门溜走，记者把他截住了。
abuse (v.) : use wrongly；use insulting，coarse or bad language；scold harshly滥用；辱骂，口出恶言
13. One could have expected that it would be about then that the phrase
would be coined. After five centuries of growth, of tussling with the French of the Normans and the Angevins and the Plantagenets and at last absorbing it, the conquered in the end conquering the conqueror, English had come royally into its own.
13.我们有理由认为这个词就是那个时候产生（coin杜撰）的。经过前后五百年的发展和与诺曼人、安茹王朝(Angevin)及金雀花王朝(Plantagenets)的法语的竞争，英语最终同化absorbing了法语。被统治者成了统治着，英语取得了国语的地位come into its own。 coin (v.) : make up；devise；invent(a new word，phrase，etc．)编造；杜撰(新词、新短语等) tussle (v.) : to fight or struggle without using any weapons，by pulling or pushing someone rather than hitting them. 斗争，搏斗；竞争
词组Tussle with 例： He was tussling with the other boys.
come into one’s own : to receive what properly belongs to one，esp．acclaim or recognition得到自己该得的东西，如荣誉或世人的口碑 Royally: adv. 像王族，庄严地
8. English had come royally into its own. (para13) 英语取得了国语的地位。
The English language received proper recognition and was used by the King once more．
14. There was a King?s (or Queen?s) English to be proud of. The Elizabethans blew on it as on a dandelion clock, and its seeds multiplied, and floated to the ends of the earth. “The King?s English” was no longer a form of what would now be regarded as racial discrimination.
14. 这样便有了一种英国人值得引以为傲的“标准英语”。伊丽莎白时代的人没费吹灰之力便使其影响日盛（multiplied（使）增加、相乘），遍及全球（blew吹）。“标准英语”再也不带有今天所谓的种族歧视racial discrimination的性质了。
dandelion (n.) : any of several plants of the composite family，common lawn weeds with jagged