(T)1. The Calvinist doctrine of “original sin” exerted great influence upon Hawthorne.
(T)2. To Hawthorne sin will get punished, one way or another. (T)3. Roger Chillingworth, the scholar, the embodiment of pure intellect, committed the “Unpardonable Sin”. (F)4. Emily Dickinson didn’t like using capital letters where small ones are needed.
(T)5. Walt Whitman used parallelism and refrain in his poems. (T)6. Walt Whitman was regarded as the Zenith in American romantic poetry. (T)7. Dickinson was original. She never imitates others.
(T)8. Allan Poe defined poetry as the rhythmical creation of beauty. (F)9. O. Henry seldom wrote about poor people.
(T)10. According to Poe, art serves for pleasure. The chief aim of poetry is beauty, namely, to produce a feeling of beauty in the reader. (T)11. According to Dickinson, death means immortality. (F)12. According to Poe, truth is beauty, beauty truth.
(T)13. According to Henry James, the aim of the novel is to reflect life reality.
(T)14. James wrote mostly of the upper reaches of American society, and Howells concerned himself chiefly with middle class life whereas Twain dealt largely with the lower strata of society.
(F)15. American writers, especially novelists were rather experimental after the World Wars. (T)16. O. Henry’s short stories are famous for their surprising endings. (T)17. Allen Ginsberg was the representative of the Beat Generation. (T)18. Allan Poe exerted great influence upon many southern American writers, especially William Faulkner.
(F)19. Emily Dickinson was regarded as the forerunner of symbolism. (F)20. Mark Twain never touched upon the problem of slavery system in his novels.
(F)21. Allan Poe was regarded as the forerunner of American Imagism. (T)22. Mark Twain was the father of American language. (T)23. Allan Poe advocated “pure” poetry.
(F)24. Mark Twain’s contribution to the development of realism and to American literature as a whole was partly through his theories of localism in American fiction and partly through his themes. (T)25. Toni Morrison is one of the most famous contemporary women writers. (T)26. O. Henry was the pen name of William Sidney Porter.
(T)27. Thomas Jefferson was the major writer of The Declaration of Independence (T)28. Henry James discovered the trick of making his characters reveal themselves with minimal intervention of the author.
(T)29. N. Hawthorne was a symbolic writer in some sense. (T)30. Whitman’s poetry suggests rather than tells.
第四部分 术语解释 (4*5=20’) 1. Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism refers to the religious and philosophical doctrines of Ralph Waldo Emerson and others in New England in the middle 1800’s, which emphasized the importance of individual inspiration and intuition, the Oversoul, and nature. Other concepts that accompanied Transcendentalism include the idea that nature is ennobling and the idea that the individual is divine and, therefore, self-reliant. 2. Naturalism
Naturalism, a more deliberate kind of realism, usually involves a view of human beings as passive victims of natural forces and social environment. As a literary movement, naturalism was initiated in France and it came to be led by Zola, who claimed at “scientific” status for his studies of impoverished characters miserably subjected to hunger, sexual obsession, and hereditary defects. 3. American Dream
The American Dream is the faith held by many people in the United States of America that through hard work, courage and determination one can achieve a better life for oneself, usually through financial prosperity. These were values held by many early European settlers, and have been passed on to subsequent generations. 4. The Lost Generation
The term Lost Generation was coined by Gertrude Stein to refer to a group of American Literary notables who lived in Paris from the time period which saw the end of WWI to the beginning of the Great Depression. Significant members included Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson, T.S. Eliot, and Gertrude Stein herself. Hemingway likely popularized the term, quoting Stein (“You are all a lost generation”) as epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises. More generally, the term is being used for the young adults of Europe and America during WWI. They were “lost” because after the war many of them were disillusioned with the world in general and unwilling to move into settled life. 5. Modernism
Modern writing is marked by a strong and conscious break with traditional forms and techniques of expression; it believes that we create the world in the act of perceiving it. Modernism implies historical discontinuity, a sense of alienation, of loss, and of despair. It elevates the individual and his inner being over social man and prefers the unconscious to the self-conscious. 6. Puritanism
The principles and practices of puritans were popularly known as Puritanism. Puritanism accepted the doctrines of Calvinism: the
sovereignty of God; the supreme authority of the Bible; the irresistibility of God’s will for man in ever act of life from cradle to grave. These doctrines led the Puritans to examine their souls to find whether they were of the elect and to search the Bible to determine God’s will.
7. Hemingway Heroes (Code Hero)
“Hemingway Heroes” refer to some protagonists in Hemingway’s works. Such a hero usually is an average man of decidedly masculine tastes, sensitive and intelligent. And usually he is a man of action and of a few words. He is such an individualist, alone even when with other people, somewhat an outsider, keeping emotions under control, stoic and self-disciplined in a dreadful place where one can not get happiness. 8. Jazz Age
“The Jazz Age” describes the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the years between WWI and WWII, particularly in North America; with the rise of the Great Depression, the values of this age saw much decline. Perhaps the most representative literary work of the age is American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, a highlighting what some describe as the decadence and hedonism, as well as the growth of individualism.
第五部分 选读分析 25’ Text1.
From the listless repose of the place, and the peculiar character of its inhabitants, who are descendants from[he original Dutch settlers, this sequestered glen has long been known by the name of SLEEPY HOLLOW, and its rustic lads are called the Sleepy Hollow Boys throughout all the neighboring country. Drowsy and dreamy influence seems to hang over the land，and to pervade the very atmosphere. Some say that the place was bewitched by a high German doctor, during the early days of the settlement; others, that an old Indian chief, the prophet or wizard of his tribe, held his powwows there before the country was discovered by Master Hendrick Hudson.
(1) Who is the writer of this short story from which the passage is taken? (2) What is the title of this short story? (3) Give a definition of “short story”.
(1) Washington Irving
(2) The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
(3) A short story is a brief prose fiction, usually one that can be read in a single sitting. It generally contains the six major elements of fiction—characterization, setting, theme, plot, point of view and
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth;
Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same,
And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.
(1) Please examine the poetic form (rhyme and meter) (2’)
(2) Describe the similarities and differences of these two roads. Which one does the speaker take? (3’)
(3) How do you understand the word “sigh”? (4’)
(4) What might the two roads stand for in the speaker’s mind? (2’) (5) What is the theme of this poem? (2’)
(1) It is written in iambic tetrameter and rhymed abaab. (2) Similarities: both of the roads are beautiful; Differences: one is quiet and grassy, less-traveled, the other is trodden by many people and flat
He took the less-traveled road.
(3) The word “sigh” is a tricky word. Because sigh can be interpreted into nostalgic relief or regret. If it is the relief sigh, then the difference means the speaker feels glad with the road he took. If it is
the regret sigh, then the difference would not be good, and the speaker would be signing in regret. Hence, sigh is ambiguous here for the speaker is not showing whether his choice is right or wrong. (4) The real road, the life road and the road in career.
(5) Choices is inevitable but you never know what you choice will mean until you have lived it. This is also the theme of the poem.
Tell me not, in mournful numbers, Life is but an empty dream!
For the soul is dead that slumbers, And things are not what they seem.
Life is real-life is earnest- And the grave is not its goal; Dust thou art, to dust returnest, Was not spoken of the soul.
(1). Who is the writer of the lines?
(2). What is the title of the whole poem from which the two stanzas are taken?
(3). Summarize the poet’s advice for living. Answers:
(1). Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (2). A Psalm of Life
(3). His optimism which has characterized much of his poetry, also endeared many critics to him. He seemed to have persevered despite tragedy. This poem is the cry of his heart, “rallying from depression”, ready to affirm life, to regroup from losses, to push on despite momentary defeat.
Because I could not stop for Death — He kindly stopped for me —
The Carriage held but just Ourselves — And Immortality.
We slowly drove — He knew no haste And I had put away
My labor and my leisure too, For His Civility —
We passed the School, where Children strove